Established (with evidences from revelation and reason) that nature of our knowledge is we know the meaning of what we’ve been informed of and we’re ignorant of reality of what we’ve been informed of.
Not possible for there to be anything in the Qur’ān whose meaning is not known except to Allāh i.e. nothing in Qur’ān whose meaning is known only to Allāh (the ma’na). Meaning of every single verse, knowledge of that is present within the Ummah i.e. its meaning is known to at least some among the Ummah.
The claim of hidden meanings in the Qur’ān opens the door of Gnostic and esoteric movements like within Judaism and Christianity who claim hidden meanings in Torah or Injeel, hidden symbology and letters representing numerology, etc.
Who the Mufawwidah are.
What the Mufawwidah attributed to the Salaf is a lie because the Salaf left the knowledge of the kaifiyyah (reality) to Allāh, not the knowledge of the meaning (which is clear and apparent in the Arabic language).
There’s hundreds of narrations which make it clear that they (Salaf) affirm the meanings of the texts of the attributes, either in a general sense or in a specific sense. Examples of general and specific statements mentioned.
Statement of Ibn Taymiyyah (رحمه الله) regarding the claim of Tafweedh. Allāh has commanded us to reflect upon the Qur’ān, to comprehend and understand it. So how then is it permissible to say that what’s requested from us is to turn away from knowing and understanding it? This is the exact opposite of what Allāh is telling us to do!
If we accept what they’re saying (Mufawwidah) for arguments sake, then they’re implying the Prophets and Messengers don’t actually know the meaning of what Allāh revealed to them (of texts of the attributes). This is ascribing ignorance to Prophets and Messengers.
Statement of Tafweedh is revilement of the Qur’ān and the Prophets.
Opens up the door for tremendous evil, for cults to appear and anyone to make claims like claims of Prophethood, etc.
This type of speech becomes an obstacle to the door of guidance and clarification from the direction of the Prophets and undermines the entire religion.
Opens up the door for those who oppose the Prophets and Messengers (like philosophers for example) to say ‘guidance and clarification is in our path, what we’re upon’.
Those who claim they’re following Salaf and Sunnah with their Tafweedh, their statement is from the most evil from the statements of the people of innovation and deviation, even worse than ta’weel (making a figurative interpretation or allegories) because of the implications of it.
Principle/Rule 5) We know what Allāh informed about Himself from one angle but not from another – and a discussion about the types of ta’weel.
We know the ma’na (meaning) but the aspect unknown to us is the kaifiyyah (how it is/nature of it). This defines our knowledge of what Allāh revealed to us.
Ma’na established by 1) revealed texts and 2) intellect/reason.
Purpose or reason behind sending of the Qur’ān is to reflect upon it so as to take an admonition from it. If there was no meaning then why are we commanded to reflect upon it?
Two types of Ayāt: 1) Ayāt Khabariyyah/Ilmiyyah (knowledge/reports) and 2) Ayāt al-Hukmiyyah al-Alamiyyah (rulings and practical matters). Required to believe in the reports and follow and act upon the rulings.
Proofs from reason refuting the claim that what Allāh describes about Himself (such as Names, Attributes and Actions) in the Qur’ān, we don’t know its meaning.
Answering the shubhah regarding verse in Surah Āl-e-Imrān [3:7] which contains “…none knows its hidden meanings/true interpretation save Allah…”
Ta’weel – the two recognized meanings as opposed to the innovated ta’weel (allegories, metaphors).
Principle/Rule 4) Those who claim that the meaning of the texts of the attributes is Tamtheel fall into four matters that have been cautioned against.
The thought process of those who deny the Attributes of Allāh (سبحانه و تعالى), the nature of their mistake and the various sins/faults they fall into.
Many of those who start presuming things about the attributes (majority or all them) which are clearly mentioned in the text, they wrongly believe that this attribute they find in the text resembles the attribute in the creatures.
For example, when Qur’ān mentions Allāh’s mercy, face, hand, etc, they think of its reality in the creation i.e. the mercy, face, hand of a man.
This is the starting point of their mistake. They find this repugnant and evil in their heart and will then take a number of steps; either distort the text or say the text has no meaning at all, no one knows it.
The four cautioned against things:
1) The errant understanding of those who think the actual meaning of the text of the attributes means affirming attributes which resemble the attributes of the creation.
2) committing a crime against the actual text by distorting it, denying and rejecting what the text clearly and apparently indicates.
3) Doing negation of the text without ‘ilm (knowledge). ‘Ilm is what Allāh said, the Messenger said, the Salafus-Saalih said. Reason for doing this must therefore be based upon Jahl (ignorance) like philosophy e.g. from Greek or star-worshipping philosophers. Such people fall into another grave and heinous crime, speaking about Allāh without knowledge. [see 7:33 in the Qur’ān]
4) When denying and rejecting what text clearly indicates, you are basically affirming the opposite imperfection. If Allāh is not hearing then He must be deaf, If Allāh is not seeing then He must be blind, نعوذ بالله. This is attributing shortcoming and deficiency to Allāh and transgressing against the right of Allāh. By doing so, resembling Allāh to things which are deficient such as likening Allāh to those things which don’t hear or see like a table, wall, etc. So trying to flee from Tamtheel but likened Allāh to those things which are less imperfect than man.
All of these things are making ilhād (deviation) in Allāh’s Names and Attributes.
Why not just say: “This is an attribute of Allāh, not like the creation, we don’t know the kaifiyyah (reality) of it.”
Finally, important clarifications regarding istiwā’ (as mentioned in the Qur’ān) and Fis-samā (as mentioned in the famous authentic hadeeth regarding the slave girl).
continuation of Principle/Rule 3) Examining the claim of the Mu’tazilah who say that words have a haqīqah (true and real meaning) and a majāz (allegorical/metaphorical meaning), and a rebuttal of this.
The concept of haqīqah and majāz is a stepping stone to esoterism and mysticism, a door to great misguidance.
Several example texts (from Qur’aan and Sunnah – authentic ahadith) mentioned to highlight the dhāhir in each case.
continuation of Principle/Rule 3) Response to Asharis and Maturidis who say it’s not allowed to take the texts of the attributes of Allāh upon the apparent meaning because the apparent meaning is not intended.
What is meant by dhāhir?
Example mentioned of hadith “O Son of Adam, I became ill and you did not visit Me…”, how some interpret this text with the incorrect meaning.
Another example, the ayah mentioning the Ark of Noah “floating under Our Eyes”, a mention of the intended and correct meaning.
Consider starting to use full Arabic words/phrases instead of English abbreviations (e.g. pbuh, SAW, A.S., RA, jzk, SWT, awj, and so on) or English equivalents which may contain incorrect spelling and/or could mean something else (e.g. inshallah).
That is unless you’re quoting directly from a book, PDF, eBook, online article, etc. which may happen to contain such English abbreviations or equivalents.
Here’s a list of some commonly used Arabic terms/phases which can be used instead: