Brief info about the lecturer: Ustādh Abu Ukkaashah Abdul-Hakim has studied in Jāmi’atul-Imaam, University of Imaam Muhammad bin Sa’ūd in Riyādh. He spent around 10 years in the city benefitting from the ulemaa such as Shaykh Fawzaan, Luhaydaan and others.
Some of the points mentioned:
There’s a tremendous amount of disunity and every single claimant has a claim that he makes and everyone claims to be upon the truth. So a person is left in this quagmire: ‘how do discern what is the truth and what is not?’
Quote from a small section of Ibn al-Qayyim’s work ‘Ilām al-Muwaqi’īn, including mention of ‘Ilmul-Nāfi’ (beneficial knowledge) and ‘Amalus-Sālih (righteous good deeds)
From the greatest sources of unity is to return back to Ahlul-‘Ilm – “Ask the people of knowledge if you do not know” (16:43)
Another way of unity is following the Messenger. That which brings about disunity in the Ummah is opposing the teachings of Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم)
Listen to the audio for further points and more details. There’s also Q&A from 01:16:45 to end.
Statement of Al-Khateeb al-Baghdadi regarding one group who denied and rejected the attributes so they nullified what Allaah and His Messenger affirmed and another group who affirmed these attributes in such a way that they entered into something of tashbeeh (resemblance) and takyeef (how attributes are).
We are in the middle, the moderate path, we affirm the meanings of the attributes and we do not have knowledge of the reality of them (how they are). We avoid exaggeration in the religion.
An important principle: Speech about the attributes is a branch of the speech about the essence, as mentioned in the treatise text “And the principle in this matter is: That speaking about the attributes is a branch of speaking about the essence (dhāt) and thus follows it exactly and takes its example”.
Quote from the speech of Shaikh Al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah in at-Tadmuriyyah containing elaboration and an illustration of the method to refute those who reject the attributes of Allaah.
How the example of the soul aids in grasping the issue of Allah’s essence and His attributes.
This is really a simple issue: Because we don’t know what His essence is made of then it’s impossible for us to know how His attributes are (Hearing, Seeing, etc).
All these groups (Ahlul-Kalaam) became misguided because they didn’t understand this simple issue. They began to use philosophy, reason, opinion, and they left the simplicity of the Qur’an and Sunnah. “There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.” [42:11]
Discussion on how to reply to a Jahmi and what probing questions to ask them.
Statement of Al-Khateeb al-Baghdadi establishing Allaah’s essence exists and has a reality but we are unable to define it in words. In the same way, the attributes exist but we cannot define their realities. A mentioned of how this is a refutation of five groups of people.
For further points and more details, please listen to the lesson or download here: Lesson 7.mp3
Tashbīh (resemblance) and the Mutashabbihah (those who resemble Allaah to the creation).
Three ways in which people fall into tashbīh with examples provided such as that of the Karrāmiyyah and Mutashabbihah Rāfidah.
Salafis are free and innocent from all these ways of tashbīh, to accuse Salafis of falling into tashbīh would be slander. We negate tashbīh (resemblance) from the attributes as mentioned in the treatise.
Mention of some vile, evil and repugnant statements from the own works of famous heretical Rāfidis and Sufis like Hisham bin al-Hakam, Abu Yazeed al-Bistami and Abu Mansoor Al-Hallaj, in which they liken Allaah to the creation.
Discussion of meanings – the universal meaning (al-ma’na al-kullī), shared meaning (Al-Qadr al-Mushtaraq) and the distinguishing part (Al-Qadr al-Mumayyiz).
An important principle: “Agreement in the name does not necessitate agreement in the reality”, which was mentioned by Shaikuhl-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah in at-Tadmuriyyah. This means there is agreement in labels such as Allaah is hearing and we are hearing, but the reality is different, it is not the same.
Quick reply to those who say that if you affirm attributes for Allaah (like hearing for example) then you have likened Him to the creation. We say: do you affirm existence for Allaah? Humans also have existence. So have you likened Allaah to the creation?
For further points and more details, please listen to the lesson or download here: Lesson 6.mp3
Whatever has come from the Qur’an and the authentic Sunnah, we must accept it and this includes the Names and Attributes of Allaah. We take them (the text) upon the dhaahir (apparent) meaning. If didn’t do so then there would be mass confusion and chaos.
Discussion of fourth important principle: negating kaifiyyah and resemblance for Allaah. Khabar is greatest and highest report, that from Allaah and His Messenger, it must be meaningful and understandable.
Elaboration on what is meant by kaifiyyah with examples given e.g. we believe in the angels but do we understanding everything about the angels or the reality of the angels? Same with Paradise and Hellfire. Don’t know reality of them but doesn’t make our belief in them any deficient.
A mention of several texts from the Qur’an negating knowledge of the how with regards to Allaah’s Names and Attributes. Whole of the Qur’an is to be reflected upon and this would include the Names and Attributes of Allaah. The meanings are known but the realities are unknown.
Statements from the Sahaba, Ibn Masood (رضي الله عنه) on meaning of as-Samad and Ibn Abbas (رضي الله عنه) on meaning of verse in Surah Az-Zukhruf (43:55).
Mention of the well-known statements from Salafus Saalih like Rabi’ah Ibn Abi Abdir-Rahman and Imaam Maalik Ibn Anas (rahimahumullaah) regarding Istiwaa.
Some statements from the likes of Imaam Ibn Battah and As-Sijzi (rahimahumullaah) containing clarity on issue of creed and belief in Allah’s Names and Attributes.
Important point: We don’t deny that there is a kaifiyyah, we can’t comprehend the reality of Allaah’s Attributes and Actions, just like for example the soul.
For further points and more details, please listen to the lesson or download here: Lesson 5.mp3
A very important principle, the most important one, which is to affirm the Attributes upon what is apparent (upon the language of the Arabs), which is extracted from this part of the text “…and to carry them upon their apparent meanings…”
Misguidance and deviation of Ahlul-Kalaam in that they believe Rahmah (mercy) refers to Allaah’s intent to reward. We know the meaning of mercy. If the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) meant something else he would have mentioned it.
Also, Mu’tazilah said Istiwaa (to ascend/rise/go above) means Istawlaa (to conquer something) as they wanted to negate Allaah rising because according to Greek philosophy there can’t be motion.
Likewise, misguidance of belief of Hand meaning Power. Why didn’t the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) explain istiwaa means Istawlaa and Hand means Power? He didn’t do this because Arabs knew what he meant.
We distinguish between the ma’na (meaning) and the haqiqah (reality). Example of the soul, we know it exists but don’t know what the soul is made of. It has a true and real existence. The soul ascends, can see, speak, etc. We don’t know the reality of it, it has attributes. Meaning of seeing and hearing known. Reality is something else.
Mu’tazilah rejected Mizaan (The Scale) as couldn’t comprehend how actions could be weighed.
For further points and more details, please listen to the lesson or download here: Lesson 4.mp3
Important Principles regarding Attributes of Allaah:
1) Intellect alone cannot lead to understanding of Allah’s attributes and actions. Point for reflection: Would you be punished if you didn’t know Allaah by using ‘aql, or by using revelation (texts in Qur’an and Sunnah)?
2) When speak about Allaah, not possible to go beyond or exceed the Qur’an and the authentic Sunnah. Names and Attributes are from the affairs of the Ghaib (unseen). Only khabar (report) depended upon, tafseel (detail) can only come from revelation.
3) Names and Attributes can come from Ahad hadith as long as reported by trustworthy, upright ones. Salaf don’t distinguish between Mutawatir and Ahad hadith i.e. both are accepted and relied upon. The rejection of Ahad hadith was innovated by the Mu’tazilah, it is not the way of the Salafus-Salih. Innovated principle: don’t accept Ahad reports in Aqeedah but do so in Fiqh, Mu’amamalat, etc. Mu’tazilah invented this, Hizbut Tahrir believe in the same.